CES was founded in 1997 by the Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) and Terra Vac (TV) as the private company to commercialize multi-phase Electrical Resistance Heating (ERH) which was originally named “Six-Phase Heating™” (SPH). CES remains the oldest and most experienced ERH vendor in the world. Upon our formation, CES obtained the Battelle patents which broadly cover the use of electric resistance heating for the in-situ treatment of contaminated soils and groundwater. BMI chose Terra Vac as their partner in forming CES because of Terra Vac’s worldwide recognition as being the original pioneers of many in-situ remediation technologies, most notably, Soil Vacuum Extraction (SVE), Dual Phase Vacuum Extraction (DPE or DVE), and also in-situ Oxidation using Fenton’s Reaction. Those original technology inventors remain the core of the CES team to this day, and together our personnel have performed more than 4,000 remediation projects worldwide since 1987, including more than 60 Superfund Sites and over 200 Department of Defense sites, including both US and NATO air
bases in Ukraine, Lithuania, and Japan.

Scientists at the Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) which operates the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed ERH with funding from the US Department of Energy which dedicated substantial resources to the National Laboratory system for the research and development of technologies to remediate DNAPL in-situ, and specifically those technologies that would have a wide range of applicability in both permeable and low permeability soils. ERH is simply an acronym for any polyphase electrical (3 phase, 6 phase, 12 phase, etc.) heating technique, and it covers a wide variety of electrical phasing options for in-situ remediation. The technique was developed in the late 1980s and early 1990s. When CES was formed, as part of our operational agreement with BMI/PNNL all the research and development information was transferred to the staff at CES. The primary inventor and author of the ERH patents was William Heath, the full time Chief Operating Officer of CES. Bill not only invented the technology, but also designed and built the original ERH power supplies.

CES has maintained the fundamental engineering practices and the reliance upon the proven data base built during the development of ERH. This approach has allowed CES to build an unprecedented and unparalleled track record of successes in the ERH field. Our ongoing R&D program has left competitors far behind in respect to issues such as poor power coupling (electrode to formation), failed electrodes, and uneven heating profiles.